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为什么素食要追求“肉相”

2018-06-26 14:16

来源:BBC

作者:

随身英语

Why some vegetarian foods imitate meat 为什么素食要追求“肉相”

在很多人看来不起眼的“素汉堡”现有了全新改良。它看起来像肉,闻起来像肉,还像肉一样渗血,但它仍是素食。这是最新一批追求有“肉相”,但保留“纯素”本性的素食。既然是素食,为什么要模仿肉?本集《随身英语》讨论“非肉似肉”的素食。

Vocabulary: copies and substitutions 词汇: 仿制品和替代品

The veggie burger: this humble non-meat burger substitute is a staple of many a vegetarian meal. Though vegetarianism has a long history that reaches as far back as Egyptian times, and while many a vegetable-only stand-in patty is likely to have been used in the interim, the term veggie burger is commonly attributed to a Gregory Sams of London, who in 1982 created the 'Vegeburger'.

So what is a veggie burger? Well, a hamburger is a meat patty between two halves of a bun. A veggie burger is similar, except the patty is a meat-free equivalent, commonly made from ingredients such as beans, tofu, nuts, grains and mushrooms. In many cases, the differences between the meat patty and vegetarian surrogate are clear, but Impossible Foods of Silicon Valley hope to put an end to that.

The Impossible burger is made of a plant-based iron-containing molecule that resembles blood. It's called 'heme' and it's a key ingredient in their wheat, coconut and potato-based meat duplicate. It apparently looks, smells and even bleeds like meat – but it's grown in a lab using biochemistry. This replicated burger is indistinguishable from meat 47% of the time in tests conducted among meat lovers, Impossible claims.

There are many non-meat alternatives that are designed to closely imitate meat and many non-vegetarians might wonder why.  Marketing is one good reason: faux-meat products appeal to meat-lover and vegetarian alike due to their alleged health benefits. If you can have the food you love at a lower health cost, why wouldn't you?  

Another reason is more ethical. Many people stop eating meat for moral reasons rather than dietary ones. They may seek to reduce animal suffering by boycotting meat products or wish to reduce the meat industry's large environmental impact. Livestock production is responsible for 18% of total greenhouse gases, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). However, they may still miss the taste of meat. Therefore pseudo-meat is a nice fill-in.

Finally, "there are associated feelings and memories that go with certain foods," says Thomas Banks, BBC Learning English producer and 15-year vegetarian. "I didn't grow up a vegetarian and sometimes I miss my family's cooking. Replica meat allows me to have a good home-cooked meal that's just like mum used to make." Who can argue with that?

词汇表

substitute 替代物
stand-in 顶替品
similar 相似的
equivalent 等同(的东西)
surrogate 替代的
resemble 看起来像,与…相似
duplicate 复制品
replicated 被复制的
indistinguishable 难以分辨的
alternative 供选择的物品
imitate 模仿
faux 假的
pseudo-(前缀)假的
fill-in 代替者
replica 仿造的

测验与练习

1. 阅读课文并回答问题。

1. Who is said to have invented the term 'veggie burger'?

2. According to Impossible Foods, how often is the Impossible Burger indistinguishable from meat?

3. Apart from dietary concerns, why do many people become vegetarians?

4. True or false: Livestock production is responsible for 80% of total greenhouse gases according to the FAO.

5. Which word in the text means 'refuse to buy a product as a way of expressing strong disapproval'?

2. 请在不参考课文的情况下完成下列练习。选择一个意思合适的单词填入句子的空格处。

1.  In the rain I didn't have my umbrella, so I used my newspaper as a ______.

duplicate       replicate       alternative       substitute

2. Michael Jackson often ______ James Brown's style of dancing.

replicad       imitated       stand-in       surrogated

3. I don't agree with wearing real fur. It's cruel. ______ fur is fine though.

fill-in       pseudo-       faux       simulation

4. The two paintings seem ______. But if you look closer, one of them is a fake.

indistinguishable       equivelent       samilar       imitate

5. I don't ______ my father much. I look more like my mother.

similar       imitate       resemble       substitute

答案

1. 阅读课文并回答问题。

1. Who is said to have invented the term 'veggieburger'?
The term veggie burger is commonly attributed to a Gregory Sams of London.

2. According to Impossible Foods, how often is the Impossible Burger indistinguishable from meat?
This replicated burger is indistinguishable from meat 47% of the time in tests conducted among meat lovers, Impossible claims.

3. Apart from dietary concerns, why do many people become vegetarians?
People become vegetarians to reduce animal suffering or the meat industry's environmental impact.

4. True or false: Livestock production is responsible for 80% of total greenhouse gases according to the FAO.
False. Livestock production is responsible for 18% of total greenhouse gases.

5. Which word in the text means 'refuse to buy a product as a way of expressing strong disapproval'?
Boycott. (They may seek to reduce animal suffering by boycotting meat products)

2. 请在不参考课文的情况下完成下列练习。选择一个意思合适的单词填入句子的空格处。

1. In the rain I didn't have my umbrella, so I used my newspaper as a substitute.

2. Michael Jackson often imitated James Brown's style of dancing.

3. I don't agree with wearing real fur. It's cruel. Faux fur is fine though.

4. The two paintings seem indistinguishable. But if you look closer, one of them is a fake.

5. I don't resemble my father much. I look more like my mother.

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